Is Freelancing Allowed on an F1 Visa? What You Need to Know


So you’re studying in the U.S. on an F1 visa and wondering if you can do some freelancing to earn extra cash or gain valuable work experience.

The short answer is yes, you are permitted to engage in freelance work on an F1 visa, but there are a few guidelines you need to follow to maintain your visa status.

As an international student, your primary purpose for being in the U.S. is to study, not work. However, the immigration laws do allow for some limited freelancing and self-employment.

Before you dive into the freelance pool, make sure you understand the rules around how many hours you can work, whether you need authorization for self-employment, how to report your freelance income, and other essential requirements.

Follow these guidelines, and you’ll be able to take advantage of the opportunity to gain real-world work experience in your field of study while studying in America.

Key Takeaways

  • Limited freelance work is permitted on an F1 visa but must align with visa regulations and not disrupt primary studies.
  • On-campus roles, CPT, and OPT offer legal employment; freelancing outside these risks violates F1 status.
  • Strict adherence to guidelines, income reporting, and consulting advisors is vital for maintaining F1 visa status.
  • Engaging in unauthorized work can lead to severe consequences, including visa revocation, deportation, fines, and future limitations.

What Is an F1 Visa?

So you’ve been accepted to study in the U.S. and have your F1 visa, but can you work while there? The short answer is yes, you can freelance and do independent work. However, there are a few guidelines you’ll need to follow to keep your F1 status.

What exactly is an F1 visa?

An F1 visa is a non-immigrant student visa that allows international students to pursue education in the United States. It permits temporary residence while enrolled at an accredited college, university, seminary, conservatory, academic high school, elementary school, or other academic institution.

On an F1 visa, you can work up to 20 hours a week on campus. However, many students want additional work experience in their field of study. Freelancing, or working as an independent contractor, can be a great way to gain valuable experience, build your resume, and earn extra money outside of your on-campus job. Some common types of freelance work for students include:

  • Tutoring: Helping other students learn English, math, music, coding, and more.
  • Writing: Freelance writing, blogging, content creation, or translation work.
  • Design: Creating graphics, websites, mobile apps, or other media as an independent designer.
  • Ridesharing: Driving for services like Uber, Lyft, or food delivery apps in your spare time.

The key is that any freelance work must be incidental to your studies, meaning it cannot be full-time or displace your academic obligations.

As long as you progress toward completing your degree, freelancing and independent work are usually allowed. But be sure to check with your school’s international student services department to clarify the details and stay compliant with your F1 status.

F1 Visa Work Options: On-Campus vs. CPT vs. OPT

As an F1 student, you have a few options for work authorization that allow you to gain valuable experience in your field of study. The most common are on-campus employment, CPT (Curricular Practical Training), and OPT (Optional Practical Training).

On-Campus Employment

On-campus jobs, like teaching or research assistant roles, are an easy way to get work experience while earning some extra cash. The key is the work must take place on campus or at an affiliated off-campus location. No special authorization is needed, but you are limited to 20 hours per week during the school year.

CPT (Curricular Practical Training)

CPT authorizes you to participate in internships, cooperative education, practicums, or any other required internship directly related to your primary study area. The work must be integral to your program curriculum and offered through your school to qualify. CPT must be completed before the program end date listed on your I-20. Talk to your DSO to apply.

ALSO READ:  Dubai Digital Nomad Visa (Remote Working Scheme): All You Need to Know

OPT (Optional Practical Training)

OPT provides up to 12 months of temporary employment directly related to your field. The application process begins with your DSO, who will update your SEVIS record and provide a new I-20 indicating OPT authorization.

You then apply for an Employment Authorization Document (EAD) with USCIS, which typically takes 3 to 5 months. Once you have the EAD in hand, you can begin working!

With the proper authorization and job opportunities that complement your course of study, you can gain invaluable experience in the U.S. Make the most of your time as a student and use all resources available to prepare for your career. The future is yours to shape.

Is Freelancing Considered Employment by USCIS?

Is freelancing considered employment by USCIS? In short, yes. The USCIS closely examines the “employer-employee” relationship for F1 visa holders regarding freelancing.

Freelancing is viewed as a job

To the USCIS, freelancing, consulting, and contract work are all considered forms of employment. As an F1 student, your primary purpose for being in the U.S. is to study, not work. Any work you do must be authorized under your F1 status.

F1 students can only work on-campus or through CPT/OPT

The only ways F1 students are allowed to work in the U.S. are:

  • On-campus employment: Working for your school in an on-campus job like teaching assistant, research assistant, library assistant, etc. This is automatically authorized for all F1 students.
  • CPT (Curricular Practical Training): Temporary work authorization directly related to your central study area. Your school’s DSO must authorize you before starting any work.
  • OPT (Optional Practical Training): Temporary work authorization for jobs directly related to your field of study. You must apply for OPT authorization from USCIS.

Freelancing violates F1 status

Doing freelance work, consulting, or contract jobs would violate your F1 student status since that work is not authorized under the exceptions above. The USCIS strictly forbids F1 students from unauthorized employment. Engaging in unauthorized work could result in losing your F1 status and even deportation from the U.S.

The bottom line is that as an F1 student, you should not do any freelancing or contract work. Focus on your studies and only work in jobs specifically authorized for your F1 visa. If freelancing or starting a business in the U.S. is your goal, consider other visa options like the O-1 visa. But for now, avoid unauthorized work and stick to your F1 student status rules.

Rules and Regulations Around Working on an F1 Visa

As an international student on an F1 visa in the U.S., you may wonder if you’re allowed freelance work to earn extra money or gain valuable experience. The short answer is yes, but you must follow specific rules and regulations to avoid jeopardizing your student status.

On-Campus Employment

F-1 students can accept on-campus employment during their first academic year, like teaching assistantships, research positions, and cafeteria staff jobs. You can work up to 20 hours weekly while school is in session and full-time during breaks and holidays. On-campus jobs do not require government approval.

Off-Campus Employment

After your first academic year, you may be eligible for off-campus employment related to your field of study, like internships, under Optional Practical Training (OPT). OPT allows F-1 students to work for 12 months in jobs directly related to their primary study area. You must apply for OPT through your school and receive USCIS authorization before starting off-campus work. Some students use OPT to do freelance work related to their degree program.

Freelancing Rules

If you want to do freelance work outside of OPT, it must be done on a limited, sporadic basis. You cannot do freelance work regularly, which is a full-time job.

Freelancing should not interfere with your course of study. You must continue to make progress toward completing your degree program. Freelancing also cannot be your primary source of income. You must maintain the minimum funding required for your student status.

In summary, freelancing and working as an independent contractor is permitted for F-1 students on a limited basis, as long as it does not violate the terms of your student status. Ensure any work relates to your field of study, does not exceed 20 hours per week during school terms, and is temporary and sporadic.

Always check with your school’s International Student Office if you have questions about employment rules for your F1 visa. Following the regulations carefully will allow you to gain valuable experience through freelancing without jeopardizing your ability to study in the U.S.

Potential Consequences of Freelancing Without Authorization

As an F1 student, engaging in unauthorized employment can have serious consequences. Understanding the potential risks before freelancing or starting your own business is essential.

ALSO READ:  Costa Rica's Tourism Board Helps Visitors Become Digital Nomads

Deportation and Visa Revocation

Working without proper authorization is considered a violation of your F1 status. It can ultimately lead to deportation from the U.S. Your F1 visa may also be revoked, meaning you can no longer re-enter the country as a student. These severe penalties can impact your ability to study or work in America.

In addition to immigration consequences, you may face legal penalties for unauthorized work. The U.S. government can issue fines of up to $50,000 per violation. You may also face criminal prosecution for repeat or willful offenses. Hefty legal fees and a criminal record can create further hassles even if you avoid deportation.

Limited Future Immigration Benefits

Engaging in unauthorized work as an F1 student can jeopardize future U.S. immigration benefits like Optional Practical Training (OPT) or H1B sponsorship by an employer. When applying for these benefits, immigration officials review your record to verify status compliance. A history of unauthorized work may lead to denial of these applications.

Lost Time and Money

If caught freelancing or running an unauthorized business, you may face interruptions to your studies while issues are resolved. Valuable time spent on coursework or internships may be lost dealing with immigration or legal matters. Significant financial losses are also possible if a business is shut down or fines must be paid.

In summary, while the flexibility and income from freelancing or entrepreneurship may be appealing, it is not worth the risks for F1 students. Focus on enjoying your studies and authorized work opportunities. If you have a viable business idea, consider ways to legally start and operate the company once you have proper work authorization. Your immigration status is too precious to put in jeopardy.

Tips for Legally Freelancing While on F1 Status

As an international student on an F1 visa, you can legally freelance and earn money in the U.S. under certain conditions. The key is ensuring you follow the rules to avoid jeopardizing your student status.

Stay within the time limits.

During your first year of study, you can freelance part-time for up to 20 hours per week. Once you start optional practical training (OPT), you must work at least 20 hours per week in a field related to your degree. Freelancing during OPT still requires you to apply for Employment Authorization from USCIS.

Only work in your field of study.

Any freelance work you do must be directly related to your field. This helps ensure you gain valuable work experience in the U.S. that complements your degree program. Check with your school’s international student office if the work seems unrelated.

Pay taxes

You’ll be self-employed as a freelancer, so you must file a tax return and pay income taxes on the money you earn. Ensure you record your income and expenses well to file your taxes correctly. Your school can provide resources on how to file taxes as an F1 student.

Maintain your F1 status.

Continue to enroll full-time in classes to keep your student status active. Also, limit freelancing to approved periods, like during breaks or after you’ve completed your degree. Don’t let freelancing interfere with the primary purpose of your visit – obtaining your degree.

Consider other options

While freelancing on an F1 visa is allowed in some situations, you have other options to gain work experience in the U.S. Internships, co-op programs, and on-campus jobs are also viable choices. They may provide more mentorship and help advance your career. Discuss the options with your school to determine the best path based on your needs and goals.

With some precautions taken, freelancing while on F1 status can be a great way to gain real-world experience in your field and earn extra money during your studies. But always put your student status first to avoid problems. If you follow the rules, freelancing and studying in the U.S. can go hand in hand.

Alternatives to Freelancing: Volunteer & Internship Options

As an international student on an F1 visa, you have options beyond freelancing to gain valuable experience. Some good alternatives include:


Volunteering at a local organization related to your field of study is an excellent way to build experience. Many nonprofits need help with skills like marketing, graphic design, I.T., and more. You can find opportunities on sites like VolunteerMatch, Idealist, and your college’s career center. Make sure any volunteering aligns with the terms of your F1 visa.

Remote Internships

Remote or virtual internships are an alternative to traditional in-person roles. Many companies now offer internships that can be done remotely, especially in tech fields. Search for “remote intern” or “virtual intern” on sites like, Chegg Internships, and WayUp. Remote internships allow you to work for companies located anywhere, allowing you to gain experience from home.

ALSO READ:  Malta Digital Nomad Visa: Everything You Need to Know

Building Your Brand

If freelancing or interning isn’t possible, focus on building your brand. Start a blog, vlog, or podcast to establish yourself as an expert in your industry.

Build your professional network by connecting with others in your field on LinkedIn. Look for speaking engagements at local organizations or conferences to raise your visibility. A strong personal brand will help you find new opportunities and stand out to employers when you graduate.

While freelancing may seem appealing, there are many other productive ways for international students on F1 visas to gain valuable experience.

With some creativity and persistence, you can find alternatives that will help launch your career. The key is making the most of the opportunities available and never giving up. Keep putting one foot before the other, learn from your experiences, and your ideal opportunity will present itself when correct.

Success Stories: Freelancing on an F1 Visa

As an international student in the U.S. on an F1 visa, you may wonder if you’re allowed to freelance or do independent work to earn extra money. The good news is, yes, you can legally freelance while maintaining your student status, as long as you follow the rules.

Find the Right Platform

Websites like Upwork, Fiverr, and Freelancer allow you to find freelance jobs that match your skills. Register as a freelancer, build your profile, set your rates, and start applying for jobs. Be sure only to accept jobs that fall within the limits of your F1 visa.

Maintain Your Student Status

Your studies should remain your top priority. Only freelance part-time, up to 20 hours a week while school is in session. During school breaks, you can work full-time. Keep records of your freelance hours if your school’s international student office requests it.

Pay Taxes

As a freelancer, you must pay self-employment and income taxes. Be sure to file the proper tax forms each year to remain compliant. You should also keep records of client payments, expenses, invoices, and other financial documents.

Build Your Portfolio

One of the best ways to find new freelance clients is to build up your portfolio with examples of your work. Start with some low-paying or free jobs to gain experience and reviews, then use your portfolio and reviews to land better-paying jobs. Provide high-quality work for your clients to get good reviews and referrals.

Some F1 students have found freelancing successful in writing, programming, graphic design, online tutoring, and more. With the right skills and motivation, you can turn freelancing into a lucrative and rewarding endeavor during your student years and beyond. The key is legally maintaining your F1 status and keeping good records. Follow the rules, work hard, and the opportunities will come!

What We Think

Navigating freelance work on an F1 visa demands meticulous adherence to regulations to safeguard your academic journey and future prospects in the U.S. Prioritizing visa compliance by seeking guidance and exploring alternative avenues within permitted boundaries is crucial.

While freelance opportunities may seem tempting, unauthorized engagements pose significant risks, potentially derailing academic pursuits and hindering long-term career goals.

Protecting your F1 status ensures a successful academic path and opens doors for a promising professional trajectory in the U.S., establishing a solid foundation for your future endeavors.

FAQ: Answering Common Questions About F1 Visas and Freelancing

As an international student on an F1 visa, you may have questions about whether freelancing or self-employed work is allowed. The short answer is yes, with some conditions. Here are the most common questions and answers regarding F1 visas and freelancing:

Can I legally freelance on an F1 visa?

As mentioned in the article above, F1 students can work freelance or self-employed under certain circumstances.

Can I join freelancing platforms like Upwork or Fiverr?

As an F1 student, you cannot provide freelance services to companies outside the U.S. or join public freelancing platforms. You may only perform freelance work for clients within the U.S. with whom you have a direct relationship. Online platforms typically have clients from all over the world, so they do not meet this requirement.

Do I need a work permit to freelance?

As mentioned above, F1 students do not need a separate work permit to freelance, but you do need authorization from your school’s DSO. Their approval and maintenance of your student status serve as your authorization for freelancing and practical training. However, if you want to extend your freelancing beyond the initial approval period, you must apply for Optional Practical Training (OPT) authorization.

Can freelancing impact my OPT?

Engaging in freelancing before applying for OPT will not negatively impact your eligibility for OPT. However, any time spent freelancing will be deducted from your total OPT authorization period. So if you freelance for six months, you will have six months less available for OPT after graduating. Planning and strategizing the timing of your freelancing and OPT is important.


Being Digital Nomad provides verified information and reporting on digital nomad visas, remote jobs, destinations, and resources. Subscribe to the newsletter for more.


Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here


The Nomad Weekly Newsletter

Your weekly roundup of digital nomad news, visa information, destination tips and resources.

Recent Posts

Curaçao Digital Nomad Visa: Requirements, Application Process, Fee, More

Table of contentsQuick Facts About CuraçaoDoes Curaçao have a...

Peru Introduces a New Opportunity for Digital Nomads: The Digital Nomad Visa

Key Takeaways Peru introduces a digital nomad visa allowing remote...

South Korea Unveils New Visas to Boost Tourism and Embrace Digital Workforce

Key Takeaways South Korea is launching a K-culture training visa...